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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Moldova
Flag of Moldova
Map of Moldova
Introduction Moldova
Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Geography Moldova
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:
total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
moderate winters, warm summers
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
Irrigated land:
3,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment - current issues:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
People Moldova
4,466,706 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 455,673/female 438,934)
15-64 years: 69.7% (male 1,498,078/female 1,613,489)
65 years and over: 10.3% (male 170,456/female 290,076) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 32.3 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 34.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.28% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
15.7 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 38.38 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.65 years
male: 61.61 years
female: 69.88 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 300 (2001 est.)
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:
Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.6%
female: 98.7% (2003 est.)
Government Moldova
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
name: Chisinau (Kishinev)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 50 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system:
based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001; cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; National Liberal Party or NLP [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party for Social Democracy or PSD [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael D. KIRBY
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Flag description:
same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
Economy Moldova
Economy - overview:
Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas to Moldova in disputes over pricing. The economy achieved 6% or more GDP growth every year from 2000-05, though this was based largely on consumption fueled by remittances received from Moldovans working abroad. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, slowed GDP growth in 2006 and greatly exacerbated Moldova's economic troubles. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls; nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. Also, the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region continues to be a drag on the Moldovan economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$8.971 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.588 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.6% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21.5%
industry: 22%
services: 56.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
1.339 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 40.7%
industry: 12.1%
services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.3%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
29.5% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.2 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.1% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
24.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $1.318 billion
expenditures: $1.335 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
84.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
6.9% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
1.229 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.6%
hydro: 9.4%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
4.203 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
130 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
2.9 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.17 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
2.17 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
$-561 million (2006 est.)
$1.02 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:
Russia 32.9%, Italy 12.7%, Romania 10.6%, Ukraine 9.5%, Belarus 6.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
$2.65 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners:
Ukraine 20.9%, Russia 11.7%, Romania 11.2%, Germany 8.3%, Italy 6.6%, Turkey 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$680 million (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$2.142 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$6.376 billion (2003)
Currency (code):
Moldovan leu (MDL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
lei per US dollar - 13.131 (2006), 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Moldova
Telephones - main lines in use:
929,400 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.09 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; two private operators of GSM mobile cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; license for one CDMA mobile telephone network currently being tendered
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2004)
3.22 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
40 (2004)
1.26 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
58,886 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (1999)
Internet users:
406,000 (2005)
Transportation Moldova
12 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
gas 606 km (2006)
total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
total: 12,733 km
paved: 10,976 km
unpaved: 1,757 km (2004)
424 km (on Dniester River) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,831 GRT/15,003 DWT
by type: cargo 7
foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2006)
Military Moldova
Military branches:
National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; national service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,066,459
females age 18-49: 1,117,070 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 693,913
females age 18-49: 911,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 43,729
females age 18-49: 42,354 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$8.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.4% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Moldova
Disputes - international:
Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region which remains under OSCE supervision
Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

This page was last updated on 15 March, 2007