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Flag of Slovenia
Map of Slovenia
Introduction Slovenia
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Geography Slovenia
Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:
total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total: 1,382 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 280 km
46.6 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests
Land use:
arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)
Irrigated land:
30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
flooding and earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
People Slovenia
2,010,347 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.8% (male 143,079/female 135,050)
15-64 years: 70.5% (male 714,393/female 702,950)
65 years and over: 15.7% (male 121,280/female 193,595) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.6 years
male: 39 years
female: 42.2 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.05% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
8.98 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.33 years
male: 72.63 years
female: 80.29 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
280 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups:
Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Catholic 57.8%, Orthodox 2.3%, Muslim 2.4%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%
Government Slovenia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Government type:
parliamentary republic
name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
adopted 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)
election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 27
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consisting of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates one seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decisions, and call national referenda; members - representing social, economic, professional, and local interests - are indirectly elected to five-year terms by an electoral college)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian and Italian minorities 1 each
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Jelko KACIN]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Slovenian Democratic Pensioners' Party or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ZBOGAR
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas B. ROBERTSON
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
Economy Slovenia
Economy - overview:
With a GDP per capita substantially greater than the other transitioning economies of Central Europe, Slovenia is a model of economic success and stability for its neighbors from the former Yugoslavia. The country, which joined the EU in May 2004 and joined the eurozone on 1 January 2007, has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and an excellent central location. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-05. Despite lackluster performance in Europe in 2001-05, Slovenia maintained moderate growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Despite its economic success, Slovenia faces growing challenges. Much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU on a per capita basis. Although tax reforms were implemented in December 2006, taxes are still relatively high. The labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. The current center-right government, elected in October 2004, has pledged to accelerate privatization of a number of large state holdings and is interested in increasing FDI in Slovenia. In late 2005, the government's new Committee for Economic Reforms was elevated to cabinet-level status. The Committee's program includes plans for lowering the tax burden, privatizing state-controlled firms, improving the flexibility of the labor market, and increasing the government's efficiency.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$47.12 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$37.64 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.4% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$23,400 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 34.1%
services: 63.6% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
1.026 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 39.1%
services: 56.1% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
12.9% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 21.4% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.4% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
25.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $15.9 billion
expenditures: $16.35 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
29% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:
5.6% (2006)
Electricity - production:
14.9 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 35.2%
hydro: 27.3%
nuclear: 36.8%
other: 0.7% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
13.71 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports:
4.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports:
4.07 billion kWh (2006)
Oil - production:
7.83 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
53,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
1.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
$-789.2 million (2006 est.)
$21.85 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners:
Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.7%, Croatia 9.3%, France 8.1%, Austria 8.1% (2005)
$23.59 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.5%, Italy 18.6%, Austria 12%, France 7.1%, Croatia 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.631 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$29.09 billion (30 October 2006)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $484 million (2004-06)
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 2007, the euro became Slovenia's currency; both the tolar and the euro were in circulation from 1 January until 15 January
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
tolars per US dollar - 190.85 (2006), 192.71 (2005), 192.38 (2004), 207.11 (2003), 240.25 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Slovenia
Telephones - main lines in use:
816,400 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.759 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: country code - 386
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)
805,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
31 (2006)
710,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
61,735 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)
Internet users:
1.09 million (2005)
Transportation Slovenia
14 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
gas 2,526 km; oil 11 km (2006)
total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (504 km electrified) (2005)
total: 38,451 km
paved: 38,451 km (including 483 km of expressways) (2004)
Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 26 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Georgia 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Military Slovenia
Military branches:
Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)
Military service age and obligation:
17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 17-49: 496,929
females age 17-49: 483,959 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 17-49: 405,593
females age 17-49: 397,167 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 12,816
females age 17-49: 12,178 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.7% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Slovenia
Disputes - international:
the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

This page was last updated on 15 March, 2007